By Glenn D. Rennels M.D., Ph.D. (auth.)
As learn on professional structures has moved good into its moment decade, it has turn into renowned to quote the restrictions of the phenomenologic or associational method of wisdom illustration that was once commonplace of first iteration structures. for instance, the Internist-1 wisdom base represents explicitly over six hundred ailments, encoding linked illness manifestations (signs, indicators, actual findings, and lab abnormalities) yet failing to accommodate the explanations that these findings should be found in the disorder [Miller, R. A. 82]. in recent times Pople has sought so as to add designated causal types to the information base in a revised model of this system referred to as CADUCEUS [Pople 82]. equally, a customary construction rule within the MYCIN approach states inferences that could be drawn while particular stipulations are came upon to be precise [Buchanan 84], however the underlying motives for such relationships aren't encoded. Clancey has argued that MYCIN wishes such "supporting wisdom" represented, specifically if its wisdom base is for use for educating reasons [Clancey 83]. by way of the past due Nineteen Seventies, man made intelligence researchers have been commencing to scan with reasoning structures that used targeted mechanistic or causal niodels of the thing being analyzed. among the finest early examples have been a software to coach scholars the best way to learn digital circuits [Brown eighty two] and a process for diagnosing issues of mechanical units [Rieger 76].
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Adiuvant radiation therapy may follow the surgical procedure. ) Radiation is administered in daily treatments over a period of one or two weeks. 35 Background V~i " 1/ r-,, ? Figure 2-3: Halsted Radical Mastectomy. This surgical procedure removes the breast, the pectoralis (chest wall) muscles and the axillary lymph nodes. Reprinted with permission from the journal Resident and Staff Physician. 2. Treatment Objectives The medical management of a woman with primary breast cancer has several objectives.
5 outlines the steps taken by Roundsman when analyzing a case and then describes each of those steps in detail by tracing the execution of the system during an actual consultation. 1. Informal Protocol Analysis How does a physician reason from the clinical literature? To gain insight into this question, the Roundsman project began with a period of informal protocol analysis. Previous work in medical protocol analysis has investigated diagnostic reasoning [Kassirer 82, Elstein 78] and has been particularly oriented toward causal models [Kuipers 84].
Indeed, many difficulties in interpreting patient database information stem from the fact that the data are often entered without knowing precisely how they will used. In contrast, the most difficult (and crucial) part of carrying out a clinical study is assuring the integrity of the data that will be entered. Physician collaborators must be in close communication and the protocols must be carefully specified to avoid confounding variables as much as possible. Actual analysis of the data, once they are in a "database", is in many ways the easy part.
A Computational Model of Reasoning from the Clinical Literature by Glenn D. Rennels M.D., Ph.D. (auth.)