By A., ed. Meister
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Additional info for Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, Volume 51
Suitable amphiphiles dissolved in a hydrocarbon are able to solubilize water, which, in the absence of these amphiphiles is insoluble in the hydrocarbon. Amphiphiles provide the easiest way of getting monolayers of surfactants surrounding a water core [often termed water pool (Fig. 12)] and it is correct to regard water and hydrocarbon as solubilized with amphiphiles. T h e early amphiphiles were all ionic because no other single small group was sufficiently hydrophilic, but an ionic head group is not essential and, as we see later, complicates in some respect the behavior of the amphiphile.
In the largest water pools [6% (v/v) water] viscosities are markedly decreased and hydrogen bonding increased. T h e fluorescence behavior of ANS in various micromicellar systems has been investigated extensively to determine the structure and state of water through polarity and viscosity data. Studies as a function of temperature are useful for investigators dealing with work on micelles at subzero temperatures. It has been shown that the fluorescence quantum yield of ANS increases strongly with decreasing temperature and that the position of the fluorescence bond shifts towards the blue.
T h e reverse shift is observed, toward acidic p H values, in a polycationic environment @ > 0). It can be seen in Figure 25 that the pH-activity curve is shifted toward alkaline p H values, a result in agreement with the anionic nature of the polar heads of AOT. Increase in ionic strength in the range of solubility of neutral salts shifts the curve toward acidic p H values and in some cases gives values identical to those observed when the enzyme is investigated in bulk water. Thus any investigator using reverse micelles involving ionic polar heads must be aware of the existence of a spherical polyelectrolyte and therefore must record pH-activity profiles at various ionic strength values.
Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, Volume 51 by A., ed. Meister