By Stefan H. E. Kaufmann, Bruce D. Walker
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One of many Civil War's so much winning generals is heralded by way of army historians yet by no means accomplished the lasting reputation of supply, Lee, Jackson or Sherman. George Thomas's Southern beginning, the ambition of fellow officials, and his motion within the less-publicized Western Theater mixed to maintain him from achieving attractiveness.
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Extra info for AIDS and Tuberculosis: A Deadly Liaison (Infection Biology Handbook Series)
The presumably minor role of antibodies in viral control is supported by a study in which B cells were depleted with anti-CD20 antibody in an acute infection primate model, and showed little impact on viral control. This intervention led to the delayed emergence of neutralizing antibodies and no change in early viral kinetics . Despite the lack of protection, longitudinal studies of autologous neutralizing antibody responses indicate that the viral inhibitory capacity of these responses can be of sufﬁcient magnitude to completely replace circulating neutralization-sensitive virus with successive populations of neutralization-resistant virus [12, 13].
1999) Latent infection of CD4 þ Tcells provides a mechanism for lifelong persistence of HIV-1, even in patients on effective combination therapy. Nat. , 5, 512–517. , Takiguchi, M. and Goulder, P. (2009) Adaptation of HIV-1 to HLA I. Nature, 458 (7238), 641–645. H. (2008) Challenges in the development of an HIV-1 vaccine. Nature, 455, 613–619. , Lemonnier, F. M. (1996) References 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Endocytosis of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules is induced by the HIV-1 Nef protein.
Interestingly, immunization with all SIV proteins did not show any better effect on viral outcome compared to animals which had been immunized against Gag alone, thus supporting the fact that Gag is an effective stimulator for T-cells . A more advanced approach evaluated inactivated SIV pulsed fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the same animal model. Strong SIV-speciﬁc CD4 þ T-cell responses, but unfortunately lower SIV-speciﬁc CD8 þ T-cell responses, could be measured. Interestingly, most of the functional responses were directed against Gag.
AIDS and Tuberculosis: A Deadly Liaison (Infection Biology Handbook Series) by Stefan H. E. Kaufmann, Bruce D. Walker