By T. Brent Gunnoe (auth.), Pedro J. Pérez (eds.)
Over the previous decade, a lot learn attempt has been dedicated to the layout and synthesis of latest reagents and catalysts that may effect carbon-hydrogen bond activation, usually as a result of the prospect that C−H activation may permit the conversion of inexpensive and ample alkanes into useful functionalized natural compounds.
Alkane C-H Activation by means of Single-Site steel Catalysis offers the present cutting-edge improvement within the catalytic structures for the catalytic trans-formations of alkanes lower than homogeneous stipulations. bankruptcy 1 deals a finished precis of the most discoveries discovered up to now. bankruptcy 2 reports the so-called electrophilic activation, initiated through Shulpín within the overdue 60s, and the bottom for the Catalytica method. bankruptcy three examines the catalytic borylation of alkanes, came upon by means of Hartwig, while bankruptcy four offers an up to date imaginative and prescient of the alkane dehydrogenation response. bankruptcy five covers the oxygenation of C-H bonds, a box of large curiosity with bioinorganic im-plications, and eventually bankruptcy 6 provides the functionalization of alkane C-H bonds by way of carbene or nitrene insertion.
The historical past of C-H bond activation, and the present study defined during this publication, spotlight the present study and current the reader with an outlook of this box which remains to be explored via an more and more visionary and enthusiastic workforce of natural, organometallic, organic and actual chemists.
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Additional info for Alkane C-H Activation by Single-Site Metal Catalysis
A few suggestive examples have been reported and are summarized here. The formation of (some) ethylene glycol from ethanol was mentioned earlier; since the initial product of Shilov oxidation of ethane should be ethanol (along with ethyl chloride, depending on conditions), the direct conversion of ethane to ethylene glycol should be possible. That has been demonstrated, although no estimate of selectivity or yield was made ; but the earlier findings on ethanol oxidation show that there is little discrimination between C–H bonds, and coupled with the propensity for overoxidation—especially after Pt metal has begun to deposit—selectivities must be well below 50 %.
6), was and remains the most impressive achievement of high selectivity, conversion and yield in functionalization of a simple alkane. Whereas, as noted above, ligands generally are detrimental to the original Shilov system (which operates around 120 °C in water or aqueous acetic acid), that does not appear to 44 J. A. 24 Originally proposed mechanism for oxidation of methane by the Catalytica system. Reprinted from Ref.  with kind permission of Ó The American Association for the Advancement of Science (1998) be the case under more extreme conditions: a number of bis(N-ligated)Pt(II) complexes—even the simplest example, Pt(NH3)2Cl2—are moderately active for methane oxidation in concentrated sulfuric acid at 180 °C, oxidizing methane according to Eq.
20 Proposed mechanism for selective oxidation of valine. Reprinted from Ref. 21 Competing c (top) and d (bottom) functionalization of leucine earlier: a substituted aniline containing the C–H group to be activated (the terminal end of an ethyl group) was incorporated into an imine ligand that could be coordinated to a PtMe2 group. After protonolytic cleavage of one of the Pt-Me bonds, the resulting reactive Pt(II) center was in just the right position to selectively activate the target saturated C–H bond, resulting in an (alkyl)Pt(II) species.
Alkane C-H Activation by Single-Site Metal Catalysis by T. Brent Gunnoe (auth.), Pedro J. Pérez (eds.)