By Jeroen van Craenenbroeck
Within the Eighties generative grammar well-known that useful fabric is ready to undertaking syntactic constitution in conformity with the X-bar-format. This perception quickly ended in a substantial bring up within the stock of useful projections. the elemental proposal at the back of this line of theorizing, which fits by means of the identify of cartography, is that sentence constitution should be represented as a template of linearly ordered positions, every one with their very own syntactic and semantic import. in recent times, even if, a few difficulties were raised for this technique. for instance, convinced combos of syntactic parts can't be linearly ordered. In mild of such difficulties a few replacement money owed were explored. a few of them suggest a brand new (often interface-related) set off for stream, whereas others search substitute technique of accounting for varied observe order styles. those choices to cartography don't shape a homogeneous crew, nor has there to date been a discussion board the place those principles can be in comparison and faced with each other. This quantity fills that hole. It deals a diverse and in-depth view at the place taken by way of a considerable variety of researchers within the box this present day on what's possibly the most hotly debated and debatable matters in present-day generative grammar.
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JAZZ-PIANISTA1 ja podaril Saˇse [fotografiju t1 ] (a Jazz-pianist-GEN I gave Sasha-DAT picture-ACC (and ne jazz-gitarista). ’ (a b. *JAZZ-PIANISTA1 ja podaril [fotografiju t1 ] Saˇse picture-ACC Sasha-DAT (and Jazz-pianist-GEN I gave ne jazz-gitarista). not jazz-guitarist-GEN) c. JAZZ-PIANISTA1 ja posvjatil etot prazdnik Jazz-pianist-GEN I dedicated this celebration-ACC [vystupleniju t1 (a ne jazz-gitarista). performance-DAT and not jazz-guitarist-GEN) ‘I dedicated this celebration to the performance of a jazz-pianist’ A syntactic typology of topic, focus and contrast 41 d.
Nou, dat weet ik niet, maar . . ‘Well, I don’t know, but . . ’ a. ik geloof dat Piet JAN om de liniaal heeft willen I believe that Peter John for the ruler has want vragen. ask b. ik geloof dat Piet [ om de liniaal]1 JAN t 1 heeft willen John has want I believe that Peter for the ruler vragen. ’ Let us summarize the results of this section. We have argued thatA’-scrambling in Dutch is associated with the notion contrast. In particular, this type of movement marks the material relevant for calculating the set of alternatives on which the contrast operates.
A syntactic typology of topic, focus and contrast 35 We now turn to stressed wa-phrases that remain in situ, of which an example is given in (33) (see Kuno 1973, Hoji 1985, Saito 1985, Watanabe 2003, Hara 2006 and Tomioka 2009 for discussion). It is often assumed that such wa-phrases are contrastive topics. We believe that such a characterization is incorrect. Stressed in-situ wa-phrases do implicate contrast, but they fail to meet independently established criteria for topichood. (33) Who was being helpful at the accident scene?
Alternatives to Cartography by Jeroen van Craenenbroeck