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By John E. Hobbs

ISBN-10: 0408107375

ISBN-13: 9780408107372

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Extra info for Applied Climatology. A Study of Atmospheric Resources

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There appear to be common characteristics between the cooling trend since the 1940s and most earlier global climatic episodes. It is possible that all climatic cooling episodes are ahke in being marked by decHning strength of the mid-latitude westerlies and increased meridional circulation. All major episodes of this kind would therefore have some appear­ ance of a glacial-onset regime. Whether a lasting increase of glaciation and permanent shift of the climatic belts results from any one such episode must depend critically on the solar 40 The Variable Atmosphere radiation available during the recovery phases of the short-term fluctuations.

Most of the particles are ejected to the atmosphere over the large cities and industrial centres, where they are produced largely by a combination of fossil fuel burning (which produces soot and sulphur dioxide, the latter becoming sulphate particles after a short time), and the creation of particles from unburned hydrocarbons by photochemical reactions in the presence of solar ultra-violet radiation. Such secondary particles (sul­ phates and hydrocarbons) tend initially to be somewhat smaller in size than the directly produced smoke or soot particles.

5). The model also predicts that the activity of the hydrologic cycle will be increased by 7 per cent. 5 C A L C U L A T E D H E A T B A L A N C E C H A N G E S (%) F O R A N A T M O S P H E R E W I T H P R E S E N T ( 1 9 7 5 ) C A R B O N D I O X I D E LEVELS A N D TWICE THESE (after Bach, 1976; data from Manabe and Wetherald, 1975) Fluxes Change (%) Earth Surface Net short-wave radiation Net long-wave radiation Net all-wave radiation Latent heat Sensible heat + 0-5 -6-6 + 3-3 + 6-9 -7-7 Top of Atmosphere Net short-wave radiation Net long-wave radiation +0-9 + 0-9 Air Pollution 45 but it allows for no feedback to increase, or change the character of, cloudiness.

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Applied Climatology. A Study of Atmospheric Resources by John E. Hobbs


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